How to Care for African Violets A Comprehensive Guide


African violets, also known as Saintpaulia, are a popular houseplant due to their beautiful and delicate flowers. These plants are native to eastern Africa and can be found in a variety of colors and sizes. With the right care, they can bloom all year round, making them a lovely addition to any home.

In this article, we will discuss everything you need to know about caring for African violets, from their characteristics to the ideal growing conditions and common problems. So, whether you’re a beginner or an experienced gardener looking to expand your plant collection, read on to learn how to keep your African violets happy and healthy.

Plant Characteristics

How to Care for African Violets A Comprehensive Guide

Before we dive into the care tips, let’s first take a look at the different characteristics of African violets. Knowing these details will help you understand the needs of your plant better and provide it with the appropriate care.


African violets come in various sizes, ranging from miniature to large. Here’s a breakdown of the different sizes and their corresponding width:

  • Miniature/semi-miniature: Less than 8 inches wide
  • Standard: 8-16 inches wide
  • Large: More than 16 inches wide

When purchasing an African violet, make sure to check its size and choose one that fits your space and preferences.

Plant Form

The form of an African violet refers to its overall shape and structure. There are three main forms of African violets: round, mound, and rosette.

  • Round: This form is characterized by a compact and symmetrical shape, with leaves and flowers evenly distributed around the center.
  • Mound: As the name suggests, this form resembles a mound with leaves and flowers growing upwards and outwards from the center.
  • Rosette: This form has a more elongated shape, with leaves and flowers growing in a circular pattern around the center.

Flower Colors

One of the most attractive features of African violets is their vibrant and diverse flower colors. These can range from white, pink, and maroon to blue, lavender, violet, and deep purple. Some varieties even have bi-colored or multi-colored flowers, adding more visual interest to your plant collection.

Flower Shapes

African violets also come in different flower shapes, each with its unique beauty. Here are some common flower shapes you may encounter:

  • Single: This is the most basic flower shape, with five petals arranged in a circular pattern.
  • Semi-double: Similar to the single shape, but with additional rows of petals, giving it a fuller appearance.
  • Double: This shape has multiple layers of petals, creating a dense and round flower.
  • Ruffled: As the name suggests, this shape has frilly and wavy petals, adding texture to the flower.
  • Star: This shape has pointed petals that resemble a star, giving the flower a unique and eye-catching look.
  • Wasp: This shape has narrow and elongated petals that curve inward, resembling a wasp’s body.

Leaf Shape and Color

Apart from their flowers, African violets also have distinct leaf shapes and colors. The most common leaf shapes are round, heart-shaped, and oval, while the colors can vary from silvery-green and bright green to deep green. Some varieties also have creamy white edges on their leaves, adding contrast and interest to the plant.

Now that we’ve covered the characteristics of African violets let’s move on to the essential care tips.

Growing African Violets

How to Care for African Violets A Comprehensive Guide

Growing African violets may seem intimidating at first, but with the right conditions and care, they can thrive and bloom for years to come. Here are the key factors to consider when growing African violets:


African violets require bright, indirect light to grow and bloom. Placing them in a north, northwest, or northeast-facing window is ideal as they can get enough light without being exposed to direct sunlight. Direct sunlight can cause the leaves to burn and the flowers to wilt.

If you don’t have a suitable window, you can also use artificial lighting. A fluorescent light placed 12 inches above the plant for 14-16 hours a day can provide enough light for your African violet to thrive.


African violets prefer a warm and consistent temperature between 60-80°F. However, they can tolerate slightly lower temperatures, but anything below 60°F can cause damage to the plant. The optimal temperature for African violets is around 70°F, so make sure to keep them away from drafts and cold windows.


African violets thrive in a humid environment, with a humidity level of 40-60%. If the air in your home is dry, you can increase the humidity by grouping your plants together or placing them on trays filled with pebbles and water. As the water evaporates, it will create a more humid microclimate around the plants.


Choosing the right soil for your African violets is crucial as they are sensitive to overwatering and poor drainage. A well-drained soilless potting mix is the best option for these plants. It should be lightweight, airy, and have a pH level of 6.2-6.8. You can also add some perlite or vermiculite to improve drainage and aeration.

Now that we’ve covered the essential growing conditions let’s move on to the care tips for maintaining healthy African violets.

Care Tips for African Violets

How to Care for African Violets A Comprehensive Guide

Taking care of African violets requires a bit of effort and attention, but the rewards are worth it. Here are some tips to help you keep your African violets healthy and blooming:


Proper watering is crucial for African violets as they are sensitive to both overwatering and underwatering. The best way to water these plants is from the bottom, by placing the pot in a tray filled with water for 15-20 minutes. This allows the plant to absorb the water it needs without getting its leaves wet, which can cause damage.

You can also water from the top, but make sure to use room temperature water and avoid getting the leaves wet. Water only when the top inch of soil feels dry to the touch, and never let the soil dry out completely.


African violets require regular fertilization to maintain their health and promote blooming. You can use a balanced fertilizer with an NPK ratio of 10-10-10 or a specialized African violet fertilizer. Fertilize once a month during the growing season (spring and summer) and reduce it to every two months during the winter.


Pruning is essential for keeping your African violets in good shape and promoting new growth. Remove any dead or damaged leaves and flowers regularly, and trim back any leggy stems to encourage bushier growth. You can also pinch off the flower stalks after they finish blooming to redirect the plant’s energy towards producing new flowers.


African violets need to be repotted every 6-12 months, depending on their size and growth rate. Signs that your plant needs repotting include roots growing out of the drainage holes, the soil drying out too quickly, and stunted growth. When repotting, choose a pot that is one size larger than the current one, and use fresh potting mix.

Pests and Diseases

Like any other plant, African violets are susceptible to pests and diseases. The most common pests that can affect these plants include aphids, mealybugs, and spider mites. Regularly inspect your plants for any signs of infestation and treat them with an appropriate insecticide if necessary.

Some common diseases that can affect African violets include root rot, powdery mildew, and botrytis. To prevent these diseases, make sure to provide proper air circulation, avoid overwatering, and remove any dead or infected leaves promptly.

Common Problems and Solutions

Despite your best efforts, you may encounter some problems while caring for your African violets. Here are some common issues and their solutions:

  • Yellowing leaves: This can be caused by overwatering, underwatering, or lack of nutrients. Adjust your watering schedule and fertilize regularly.
  • Wilting flowers: This can be due to underwatering, low humidity, or direct sunlight. Make sure to water properly, increase humidity, and move the plant to a more suitable location.
  • Brown spots on leaves: This can be a sign of sunburn, fungal infection, or pest infestation. Move the plant to a shadier spot, treat with fungicide, or use an appropriate insecticide.
  • No blooming: If your African violet is not blooming, it could be due to insufficient light, improper fertilization, or overcrowding. Increase light exposure, fertilize regularly, and repot if necessary.


African violets are beautiful and delicate plants that can bring color and life to any space. With the right care and attention, they can bloom all year round, rewarding you with their stunning flowers. Remember to provide them with bright, indirect light, warm temperatures, and proper humidity, and they will thrive in your home.

We hope this comprehensive guide has given you all the information you need to care for your African violets. With these tips, you can enjoy a healthy and blooming plant collection that will brighten up your home for years to come. Happy gardening!


  • Christian Eriksen

    Christian Eriksen is a talented and passionate automotive expert. With a deep interest in vehicles and engines, he has become a reputable source of information in writing news about the auto industry. Christian is not only a talented journalist but also a car enthusiast, always infusing his passion into every line of news and articles. With patience and in-depth knowledge of new brands, models, and trends in the automotive industry, Christian Eriksen ensures that his readers are always provided with the latest and most accurate information. He has given the automotive enthusiast community a detailed look at the world of cars, and helped build a common understanding and passion for this field. With his enthusiasm and talent, Christian Eriksen has made an important contribution to promoting the development and progress of the automotive industry.